Title: CARD8 is an inflammasome sensor for HIV-1 protease activity
Author: Qiankun Wang, Hongbo Gao, Kolin M. Clark, Christian Shema Mugisha, Keanu Davis, Jack P. Tang, Gray H. Harlan, Carl J. DeSelm, Rachel M. Presti, Sebla B. Kutluay, Liang Shan
Abstract: HIV-1 has high mutation rates and exists as mutant swarms within the host. Rapid evolution of HIV-1 allows the virus to outpace the host immune system, leading to viral persistence. Approaches to target immutable components are needed to clear HIV-1 infection. Here, we report that the CARD8 inflammasome senses HIV-1 protease activity. HIV-1 can evade CARD8 sensing because its protease remains inactive in infected cells prior to viral budding. Premature intracellular activation of the viral protease triggered CARD8 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis of HIV-1-infected cells. This strategy led to the clearance of latent HIV-1 in patient CD4+ T cells after viral reactivation. Thus, our study identifies CARD8 as an inflammasome sensor of HIV-1, which holds promise as a strategy for clearance of persistent HIV-1 infection.